Soy Isoflavones
Isoflavones are a class of phytochemicals, which are compounds found only in plants (phyto means plant). They are also a type of phytoestrogen, or plant hormone, that resembles human estrogen in chemical structure yet are weaker. By mimicking human estrogen at certain sites in the body, isoflavones provide many health benefits that help you to avoid disease. Isoflavones are found in soybeans, chick peas and other legumes. However, soybeans are unique because they have the highest concentration of these powerful compounds. Soy contains many individual isoflavones, but the most beneficial are genistein and daidzein.
Isoflavones show tremendous potential to fight disease on several fronts. They have been shown to help prevent the buildup of arterial plaque, which reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Isoflavones may help reduce breast cancer by blocking the cancer-causing effects of human estrogen. They may also prevent prostate cancer by hindering cell growth. Isoflavones can fight osteoporosis by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. They may even relieve some menopausal symptoms as well.

What is Soy Isoflavones ?
Soy isoflavones are a group of compounds found in and isolated from the soybean. Soy isoflavones are phytoestrogens which are plant-derived nonsteroidal compounds that possess estrogen-like biological activity. Isoflavones bind to estrogen receptors, affecting estrogen-regulated processes, and are therefore referred to as phytoestrogens (plant estrogens). Soy isoflavones are heterocyclic phenols with structural similarity to estradiol-17beta and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Isoflavones are a unique class of plant flavonoids that have a limited distribution in the plant kingdom and can be physically described as colorless, crystalline ketones. The most common isoflavone compounds are the conjugate, glucoside, and aglucone forms. The most common and important dietary source of these isoflavones are soybeans. Soy isoflavones comprise three main isoflavones and their glycosylated forms. The three main isoflavones are the aglycones genistein, daidzein and glycitein. Their glycosylated forms are called soy isoflavone glycosides which include genistin, daidzin, and glycitin. Isoflavones compounds, such as genistein and daidzein, are found in a number of plants, but soybeans and soy products like tofu and textured vegetable protein are the primary food source.

Where it is found?
Isoflavone concentrations vary among soy products and among different brands of the same product. The highest levels are in whole bean products that have not been highly processed. Although many varieties of vegetables, grains, and legumes contain small amounts of isoflavones, by far the largest quantities are found in soybeans. Roasted soy nuts, tofu, tempeh, soy milk, meat substitutes, soy flour, and some soy protein isolates are also high in isoflavones. The soy germ, found in whole soybeans, is particularly high in isoflavones.In addition, the isoflavones present in soy are available as supplements, in capsules or tablets.
See product related video:
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Product related PDF file
Soy Isoflavones
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Benefits / uses
arw Control symptoms of menopause and perimenopause.

arw Guard against osteoporosis.

arw Reduce the risk of endometriosis.

arw Protect against prostate problems

arw Prevent various cancers

arw Reduce heart disease risk

arw Reduce alcohol consumption

arw Help control the effects of type II diabetes

arw Provide benefits in kidney disease

Soy isoflavones have been a component of the diet of certain populations for centuries. Soy isoflavones have estrogenic, antioxidant activity. They may also have anticarcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, hypolipidemic and anti-osteoporotic activities. Soy isoflavones are powerful plant substances chemically similar to the female hormone estrogen. Soy isoflavones can be used alone to treat or

prevent breast cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, and colon cancer or as mechanism inhibitors. Isoflavones alone may also reduce or prevent various symptoms related to the onset and duration of menopause, including hot flashes and osteoporosis. Isoflavones alone may also be effective in certain cardiovascular applications, including heart disease, reducing cholesterol-lipid levels, modulating angiogenesis, and other vascular effects. Moreover, isoflavones alone have been implicated in reducing headaches, dementia, inflammation, and alcohol abuse, as well as immunomodulation.

Isoflavones acts as antioxidants to counteract damaging effects of free radicals in tissues. Isoflavones may reduce the risk of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast and prostate cancer, as well as other cancers. By blocking enzymes thought to contribute to prostate cancer, soy isoflavones may delay or prevent its development. Isoflavones also have been found to have antiangiogenic effects (blocking formation of new blood vessels), and may block the uncontrolled cell growth associated with cancer, most likely by inhibiting the activity of substances in the body that regulate cell division and cell survival (growth factors). The soy isoflavone genistein has been reported to inhibit angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels that, when abnormal, can contribute to the development of cancer. Soy isoflavones have also been shown to inhibit 5 alpha-reductase, the enzyme that activates testosterone in the prostate gland and other tissues. Epidemiological studies have shown that populations with high intakes of soya foods, such as those of China, Japan and other Asian countries, usually have a reduced risk of cancers of the breast, prostate, colon and uterus.

Isoflavones can act like estrogen in stimulating development and maintenance of female characteristics or they can block cells from using other forms of estrogen. The mild estrogenic activity of soy isoflavones may ease menopause symptoms for some women, without creating estrogen-related problems. Soy may also be beneficial in preventing osteoporosis. Women approaching menopause who eat isoflavone-rich soy protein are significantly more likely to boost their bone mineral density than women whose diets are low in soy isoflavones. Soy isoflavones may help alleviate hot flashes and night sweats that many women experience during menopause.

The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends adding at least 25 grams of soy protein per day to a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol to reduce the risk of heart disease. Soy isoflavones prevent LDL cholesterol from harming the walls of blood vessels by decreasing the formation of plaque in the vessel wall.

No formal recommendations for isoflavone intake have been reported. Consumption of isoflavones in Asian countries varies between 25 and 200mg a day. In general, 250ml soya milk or yoghurt, or 50g soya flour, cooked soya beans or textured vegetable protein (TVP) provide approximately 50mg isoflavones. 2 grams of soy protein contains approximately 1 milligram of soy isoflavones. Most isoflavone supplements provide 25-100mg total isoflavones. The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) HAS reported that the consumption of 50 mg/day may reduce cholesterol, 40 to 80 mg/day may strengthen blood vessels and possibly improve blood pressure, 50 mg/day may keep bone health, and 40 to 80 mg/day may reduce hot flashes.

Possible Side effects / Precautions / Possible Interactions:
Soy products are generally very safe. Common allergic side effects include stomach upset and digestive problems including constipation and diarrhea. Soy isoflavones have been reported to reduce thyroid function in some people. Soy products may worsen kidney stones, decrease thyroid hormone production, or increase the risk of bladder cancer. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should not use soy isoflavone supplements because of their estrogenlike effects. The phytoestrogen components of soy may interfere with the drug tamoxifen and raloxifene. High intakes of soy protein may interfere with the efficacy of the anticoagulant medication warfarin. A high-fiber diet may interfere with the absorption of soy isoflavones.

Research studies / References
Isoflavones and Bone Health
arw Albertazzi P, Steel SA, Bottazzi M. Effect of pure genistein on bone markers and hot flushes. Climacteric 2005;8:371-9.

arw Alekel DL, Germain AS, Peterson CT, Hanson KB, Stewart JW, Toda T. Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate attenuates bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:844-52.

arw Arjmandi BH, Lucas EA, Khalil DA, et al. One year soy protein supplementation has positive effects on bone formation markers but not bone density in postmenopausal women. Nutr J 2005;4:8.

arw Atkinson C, Compston JE, Day NE, Dowsett M, Bingham SA. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:326-33.

arw Bunout D, Barrera G, Leiva L, et al. Effect of a nutritional supplementation on bone health in chilean elderly subjects with femoral osteoporosis. J Am Coll Nutr 2006;25:170-7.

arw Cassidy A, Albertazzi P, Lise Nielsen I, et al. Critical review of health effects of soyabean phyto-oestrogens in post-menopausal women. Proc Nutr Soc 2006;65:76-92.

arw Chen YM, Ho SC, Lam SS, Ho SS, Woo JL. Soy isoflavones have a favorable effect on bone loss in Chinese postmenopausal women with lower bone mass: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:4740-7.

arw Chen YM, Ho SC, Lam SS, Ho SS, Woo JL. Beneficial effect of soy isoflavones on bone mineral content was modified by years since menopause, body weight, and calcium intake: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Menopause 2004;11:246-54.

arw Cheung AM, Feig DS, Kapral M, Diaz-Granados N, Dodin S. Prevention of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women: recommendation statement from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Cmaj 2004;170:1665-7.

arw Clifton-Bligh PB, Baber RJ, Fulcher GR, Nery ML, Moreton T. The effect of isoflavones extracted from red clover (Rimostil) on lipid and bone metabolism. Menopause 2001;8:259-65.

arw Dalais FS, Ebeling PR, Kotsopoulos D, McGrath BP, Teede HJ. The effects of soy protein containing isoflavones on lipids and indices of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2003;58:704-9.

arw Dang ZC, Lowik C. Dose-dependent effects of phytoestrogens on bone. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2005;16:207-13.

arw Fohr B, Dunstan CR, Seibel MJ.

arw Clinical review 165: Markers of bone remodeling in metastatic bone disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:5059-75.

arw Greendale GA, FitzGerald G, Huang MH, et al. Dietary soy isoflavones and bone mineral density: results from the study of women's health across the nation. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:746-54.

arw Harkness LS, Fiedler K, Sehgal AR, Oravec D, Lerner E. Decreased bone resorption with soy isoflavone supplementation in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2004;13:1000-7.

arw Heaney RP, Carey R, Harkness L. Roles of vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, and soy isoflavones in bone health. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:1700-2.

arw Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Grobbee DE, et al. Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on cognitive function, bone mineral density, and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Jama 2004;292:65-74.

arw Lydeking-Olsen E, Beck-Jensen JE, Setchell KD, Holm-Jensen T. Soymilk or progesterone for prevention of bone loss--a 2 year randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Nutr 2004;43:246-57.

arw McCarty MF.

arw Isoflavones made simple - genistein's agonist activity for the beta-type estrogen receptor mediates their health benefits. Med Hypotheses 2006;66:1093-114.

arw Messina MJ. Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:439S-450S.

arw Messina M, Messina V. Soyfoods, soybean isoflavones, and bone health: a brief overview. J Ren Nutr 2000;10:63-8.

arw Messina M, Gardner C, Barnes S. Gaining insight into the health effects of soy but a long way still to go: commentary on the fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. J Nutr 2002;132:547S-551S.

arw Messina MJ. Soy foods and soybean isoflavones and menopausal health. Nutr Clin Care 2002;5:272-82.

arw Messina M, Ho S, Alekel DL. Skeletal benefits of soy isoflavones: a review of the clinical trial and epidemiologic data. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2004;7:649-58.

arw Migliaccio S, Anderson JJ. Isoflavones and skeletal health: are these molecules ready for clinical application? Osteoporos Int 2003;14:361-8.

arw Morabito N, Crisafulli A, Vergara C, et al. Effects of genistein and hormone-replacement therapy on bone loss in early postmenopausal women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Bone Miner Res 2002;17:1904-12.

arw Mori M, Aizawa T, Tokoro M, Miki T, Yamori Y. Soy isoflavone tablets reduce osteoporosis risk factors and obesity in middle-aged Japanese women. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2004;31 Suppl 2:S39-41.

arw Morin S. Isoflavones and bone health. Menopause 2004;11:239-41.

arw Moyad MA. Osteoporosis: a rapid review of risk factors and screening methods. Urol Oncol 2003;21:375-9.

arw Nguyen TV, Center JR, Eisman JA. Osteoporosis: underrated, underdiagnosed and undertreated. Med J Aust 2004;180:S18-22.

arw Nikander E, Metsa-Heikkila M, Ylikorkala O, Tiitinen A. Effects of phytoestrogens on bone turnover in postmenopausal women with a history of breast cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:1207-12.

arw Potter SM, Baum JA, Teng H, Stillman RJ, Shay NF, Erdman JW, Jr. Soy protein and isoflavones: their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:1375S-1379S.

arw Roudsari AH, Tahbaz F, Hossein-Nezhad A, Arjmandi B, Larijani B, Kimiagar SM. Assessment of soy phytoestrogens' effects on bone turnover indicators in menopausal women with osteopenia in Iran: a before and after clinical trial. Nutr J 2005;4:30.

arw Roughead ZK, Hunt JR, Johnson LK, Badger TM, Lykken GI. Controlled substitution of soy protein for meat protein: effects on calcium retention, bone, and cardiovascular health indices in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:181-9.

arw Schult TM, Ensrud KE, Blackwell T, Ettinger B, Wallace R, Tice JA. Effect of isoflavones on lipids and bone turnover markers in menopausal women. Maturitas 2004;48:209-18.

arw Seeman E, Eisman JA. 7: Treatment of osteoporosis: why, whom, when and how to treat. The single most important consideration is the individual's absolute risk of fracture. Med J Aust 2004;180:298-303.

arw Seeman E, Delmas PD. Bone quality--the material and structural basis of bone strength and fragility. N Engl J Med 2006;354:2250-61.

arw Setchell KD, Lydeking-Olsen E. Dietary phytoestrogens and their effect on bone: evidence from in vitro and in vivo, human observational, and dietary intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:593S-609S.

arw Soung DY, Devareddy L, Khalil DA, et al. Soy Affects Trabecular Microarchitecture and Favorably Alters Select Bone-Specific Gene Expressions in a Male Rat Model of Osteoporosis. Calcif Tissue Int 2006.

arw Spence LA, Lipscomb ER, Cadogan J, et al. The effect of soy protein and soy isoflavones on calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover study. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:916-22.

arw Uesugi T, Fukui Y, Yamori Y. Beneficial effects of soybean isoflavone supplementation on bone metabolism and serum lipids in postmenopausal japanese women: a four-week study. J Am Coll Nutr 2002;21:97-102.

arw Uesugi T, Toda T, Okuhira T, Chen JT. Evidence of estrogenic effect by the three-month-intervention of isoflavone on vaginal maturation and bone metabolism in early postmenopausal women. Endocr J 2003;50:613-9.

arw Vesper HW, Demers LM, Eastell R, et al. Assessment and recommendations on factors contributing to preanalytical variability of urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. Clin Chem 2002;48:220-35.

arw Weaver CM, Cheong JM. Soy isoflavones and bone health: the relationship is still unclear. J Nutr 2005;135:1243-7.

arw Wu J, Oka J, Higuchi M, et al. Cooperative effects of isoflavones and exercise on bone and lipid metabolism in postmenopausal Japanese women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Metabolism 2006;55:423-33.

arw Wu J, Oka J, Tabata I, et al. Effects of Isoflavone and Exercise on BMD and Fat Mass in Postmenopausal Japanese Women: A 1-Year Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Bone Miner Res 2006;21:780-9.

arw Yamori Y, Moriguchi EH, Teramoto T, et al. Soybean isoflavones reduce postmenopausal bone resorption in female Japanese immigrants in Brazil: a ten-week study. J Am Coll Nutr 2002;21:560-3.

arw Zittermann A, Geppert J, Baier S, et al. Short-term effects of high soy supplementation on sex hormones, bone markers, and lipid parameters in young female adults. Eur J Nutr 2004;43:100-8.
Soy Isoflavones and Cognitive Function

arw Casini ML, Marelli G, Papaleo E, Ferrari A, D'Ambrosio F, Unfer V. Psychological assessment of the effects of treatment with phytoestrogens on postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Fertil Steril 2006;85:972-8.

arw Dixon RA. Phytoestrogens. Annu Rev Plant Biol 2004;55:225-61.

arw Duffy R, Wiseman H, File SE. Improved cognitive function in postmenopausal women after 12 weeks of consumption of a soya extract containing isoflavones. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003;75:721-9.

arw File SE, Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, Duffy R, Wiseman H. Cognitive improvement after 6 weeks of soy supplements in postmenopausal women is limited to frontal lobe function. Menopause 2005;12:193-201.

arw Heo HJ, Suh YM, Kim MJ, et al. Daidzein activates choline acetyltransferase from MC-IXC cells and improves drug-induced amnesia. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2006;70:107-11.

arw Kim H, Xia H, Li L, Gewin J. Attenuation of neurodegeneration-relevant modifications of brain proteins by dietary soy. Biofactors 2000;12:243-50.

arw Kok L, Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Grobbee DE, van der Schouw YT. Design and baseline characteristics of a trial on health effects of soy protein with isoflavones in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 2004;47:21-9.

arw Kreijkamp-Kaspers S, Kok L, Grobbee DE, et al. Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on cognitive function, bone mineral density, and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Jama 2004;292:65-74.

arw Kritz-Silverstein D, Von Muhlen D, Barrett-Connor E, Bressel MA. Isoflavones and cognitive function in older women: the SOy and Postmenopausal Health In Aging (SOPHIA) Study. Menopause 2003;10:196-202.

arw Lee YB, Lee HJ, Sohn HS. Soy isoflavones and cognitive function. J Nutr Biochem 2005;16:641-9.

arw Lephart ED, Porter JP, Hedges DW, Lund TD, Setchell KD. Phytoestrogens: implications in neurovascular research. Curr Neurovasc Res 2004;1:455-64.

arw Lu LJ, Tice JA, Bellino FL. Phytoestrogens and healthy aging: gaps in knowledge. A workshop report. Menopause 2001;8:157-70.

arw Maki PM. Hormone therapy and cognitive function: is there a critical period for benefit? Neuroscience 2006;138:1027-30.

arw Mendez MA, Anthony MS, Arab L. Soy-based formulae and infant growth and development: a review. J Nutr 2002;132:2127-30.

arw Messina M, Gardner C, Barnes S. Gaining insight into the health effects of soy but a long way still to go: commentary on the fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. J Nutr 2002;132:547S-551S.

arw Patisaul HB, Melby M, Whitten PL, Young LJ. Genistein affects ER beta- but not ER alpha-dependent gene expression in the hypothalamus. Endocrinology 2002;143:2189-97.

arw Sirtori CR. Risks and benefits of soy phytoestrogens in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, climacteric symptoms and osteoporosis. Drug Saf 2001;24:665-82.

arw Sonee M, Sum T, Wang C, Mukherjee SK. The soy isoflavone, genistein, protects human cortical neuronal cells from oxidative stress. Neurotoxicology 2004;25:885-91.

arw Zeng H, Chen Q, Zhao B. Genistein ameliorates beta-amyloid peptide (25-35)-induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med 2004;36:180-8.
Soy Isoflavones and Menopause

arw Albertazzi P, Steel SA, Bottazzi M. Effect of pure genistein on bone markers and hot flushes. Climacteric 2005;8:371-9.

arw Campagnoli C, Abba C, Ambroggio S, Peris C, Perona M, Sanseverino P. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might reduce hot flushes: an indication from two controlled trials on soy isoflavones alone and with a PUFA supplement. Maturitas 2005;51:127-34.

arw Cassidy A, Albertazzi P, Lise Nielsen I, et al. Critical review of health effects of soyabean phyto-oestrogens in post-menopausal women. Proc Nutr Soc 2006;65:76-92.

arw Colacurci N, Zarcone R, Borrelli A, et al. Effects of soy isoflavones on menopausal neurovegetative symptoms. Minerva Ginecol 2004;56:407-12.

arw Crisafulli A, Marini H, Bitto A, et al. Effects of genistein on hot flushes in early postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind EPT- and placebo-controlled study. Menopause 2004;11:400-4.

arw Faure ED, Chantre P, Mares P. Effects of a standardized soy extract on hot flushes: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Menopause 2002;9:329-34.

arw Han KK, Soares JM, Jr., Haidar MA, de Lima GR, Baracat EC. Benefits of soy isoflavone therapeutic regimen on menopausal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:389-94.

arw Messina M, Hughes C. Efficacy of soyfoods and soybean isoflavone supplements for alleviating menopausal symptoms is positively related to initial hot flush frequency. J Med Food 2003;6:1-11.

arw Nikander E, Kilkkinen A, Metsa-Heikkila M, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial with phytoestrogens in treatment of menopause in breast cancer patients. Obstet Gynecol 2003;101:1213-20.

arw Penotti M, Fabio E, Modena AB, Rinaldi M, Omodei U, Vigano P. Effect of soy-derived isoflavones on hot flushes, endometrial thickness, and the pulsatility index of the uterine and cerebral arteries. Fertil Steril 2003;79:1112-7.

arw Petri Nahas E, Nahas Neto J, De Luca L, Traiman P, Pontes A, Dalben I. Benefits of soy germ isoflavones in postmenopausal women with contraindication for conventional hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 2004;48:372-80.

arw Scambia G, Mango D, Signorile PG, et al. Clinical effects of a standardized soy extract in postmenopausal women: a pilot study. Menopause 2000;7:105-11.

arw Secreto G, Chiechi LM, Amadori A, et al. Soy isoflavones and melatonin for the relief of climacteric symptoms: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized study. Maturitas 2004;47:11-20.

arw Upmalis DH, Lobo R, Bradley L, Warren M, Cone FL, Lamia CA. Vasomotor symptom relief by soy isoflavone extract tablets in postmenopausal women: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Menopause 2000;7:236-42.

arw Williamson-Hughes PS, Flickinger BD, Messina MJ, Empie MW. Isoflavone supplements containing predominantly genistein reduce hot flash symptoms: a critical review of published studies. Menopause 2006.
Isoflavones and Prostate Health

arw Adams KF, Chen C, Newton KM, Potter JD, Lampe JW. Soy isoflavones do not modulate prostate-specific antigen concentrations in older men in a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:644-8.

arw Akaza H, Miyanaga N, Takashima N, et al. Comparisons of percent equol producers between prostate cancer patients and controls: case-controlled studies of isoflavones in Japanese, Korean and American residents. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2004;34:86-9.

arw Bektic J, Guggenberger R, Eder IE, et al. Molecular effects of the isoflavonoid genistein in prostate cancer. Clin Prostate Cancer 2005;4:124-9.

arw Branca F, Lorenzetti S. Health effects of phytoestrogens. Forum Nutr 2005:100-11.

arw Brossner C, Petritsch K, Fink K, et al. Phytoestrogen tissue levels in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer and their association with prostatic diseases. Urology 2004;64:707-11.

arw Cross HS, Kallay E, Lechner D, Gerdenitsch W, Adlercreutz H, Armbrecht HJ. Phytoestrogens and vitamin D metabolism: a new concept for the prevention and therapy of colorectal, prostate, and mammary carcinomas. J Nutr 2004;134:1207S-1212S.

arw deVere White RW, Hackman RM, Soares SE, Beckett LA, Li Y, Sun B. Effects of a genistein-rich extract on PSA levels in men with a history of prostate cancer. Urology 2004;63:259-63.

arw Fischer L, Mahoney C, Jeffcoat AR, et al. Clinical characteristics and pharmacokinetics of purified soy isoflavones: multiple-dose administration to men with prostate neoplasia. Nutr Cancer 2004;48:160-70.

arw Fritz WA, Cotroneo MS, Wang J, Eltoum IE, Lamartiniere CA. Dietary diethylstilbestrol but not genistein adversely affects rat testicular development. J Nutr 2003;133:2287-93.

arw Handayani R, Rice L, Cui Y, et al. Soy isoflavones alter expression of genes associated with cancer progression, including interleukin-8, in androgen-independent PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. J Nutr 2006;136:75-82.

arw Hedlund TE, van Bokhoven A, Johannes WU, Nordeen SK, Ogden LG. Prostatic fluid concentrations of isoflavonoids in soy consumers are sufficient to inhibit growth of benign and malignant prostatic epithelial cells in vitro. Prostate 2006;66:557-66.

arw Holzbeierlein JM, McIntosh J, Thrasher JB. The role of soy phytoestrogens in prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol 2005;15:17-22.

arw Hong SJ, Kim SI, Kwon SM, Lee JR, Chung BC. Comparative study of concentration of isoflavones and lignans in plasma and prostatic tissues of normal control and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Yonsei Med J 2002;43:236-41.

arw Hussain M, Banerjee M, Sarkar FH, et al. Soy isoflavones in the treatment of prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer 2003;47:111-7.

arw Jarred RA, Keikha M, Dowling C, et al. Induction of apoptosis in low to moderate-grade human prostate carcinoma by red clover-derived dietary isoflavones. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:1689-96.

arw Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, D’Costa MA, et al. Soy consumption and phytoestrogens: effect on serum prostate specific antigen when blood lipids and oxidized low-density lipoprotein are reduced in hyperlipidemic men. J Urol 2003;169:507-11.

arw Kumar NB, Cantor A, Allen K, et al. The specific role of isoflavones in reducing prostate cancer risk. Prostate 2004;59:141-7.

arw Lee MM, Gomez SL, Chang JS, Wey M, Wang RT, Hsing AW. Soy and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:665-8.

arw Lephart ED, Porter JP, Hedges DW, Lund TD, Setchell KD. Phytoestrogens: implications in neurovascular research. Curr Neurovasc Res 2004;1:455-64.

arw Lund TD, Munson DJ, Haldy ME, Setchell KD, Lephart ED, Handa RJ. Equol is a novel anti-androgen that inhibits prostate growth and hormone feedback. Biol Reprod 2004;70:1188-95.

arw Marks LS, Kojima M, Demarzo A, et al. Prostate cancer in native Japanese and Japanese-American men: effects of dietary differences on prostatic tissue. Urology 2004;64:765-71.

arw Messina MJ. Legumes and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:439S-450S.

arw Messina MJ. Emerging evidence on the role of soy in reducing prostate cancer risk. Nutr Rev 2003;61:117-31.

arw Miltyk W, Craciunescu CN, Fischer L, et al. Lack of significant genotoxicity of purified soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein) in 20 patients with prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:875-82

arw Ozasa K, Nakao M, Watanabe Y, et al. Serum phytoestrogens and prostate cancer risk in a nested case-control study among Japanese men. Cancer Sci 2004;95:65-71.

arw Rannikko A, Petas A, Rannikko S, Adlercreutz H. Plasma and prostate phytoestrogen concentrations in prostate cancer patients after oral phytoestogen supplementation. Prostate 2006;66:82-7.

arw Schroder FH, Roobol MJ, Boeve ER, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in men with prostate cancer and rising PSA: effectiveness of a dietary supplement. Eur Urol 2005;48:922-30; discussion 930-1.

arw Takimoto CH, Glover K, Huang X, et al. Phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of unconjugated soy isoflavones administered to individuals with cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:1213-21.

arw Urban D, Irwin W, Kirk M, et al. The effect of isolated soy protein on plasma biomarkers in elderly men with elevated serum prostate specific antigen. J Urol 2001;165:294-300.
Soy Isoflavones and Skin

arw Barnes S. Effect of genistein on in vitro and in vivo models of cancer. J Nutr 1995;125:777S-783S.

arw Kim SY, Kim SJ, Lee JY, et al. Protective effects of dietary soy isoflavones against UV-induced skin-aging in hairless mouse model. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:157-62.

arw Kotsopoulos D, Dalais FS, Liang YL, McGrath BP, Teede HJ. The effects of soy protein containing phytoestrogens on menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Climacteric 2000;3:161-7.

arw McElwee KJ, Niiyama S, Freyschmidt-Paul P, et al. Dietary soy oil content and soy-derived phytoestrogen genistein increase resistance to alopecia areata onset in C3H/HeJ mice. Exp Dermatol 2003;12:30-6.

arw Miquel J, Ramirez-Bosca A, Ramirez-Bosca JV, Alperi JD. Menopause: a review on the role of oxygen stress and favorable effects of dietary antioxidants. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2006;42:289-306.

arw Miyazaki K, Hanamizu T, Iizuka R, Chiba K. Genistein and daidzein stimulate hyaluronic acid production in transformed human keratinocyte culture and hairless mouse skin. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2002;15:175-83.

arw Miyazaki K, Hanamizu T, Sone T, Chiba K, Kinoshita T, Yoshikawa S. Topical application of Bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk extract containing genistein and daidzein improves rheological and physiological properties of skin. J Cosmet Sci 2004;55:473-9.

arw Miyazaki K. Novel approach for evaluation of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of genistein and daidzein using B16 melanoma cells and dendricity assay. Pigment Cell Res 2004;17:407-12.

arw Moore JO, Wang Y, Stebbins WG, et al. Photoprotective effect of isoflavone genistein on ultraviolet B induced pyrimidine dimer formation and PCNA expression in human reconstituted skin and its implications in dermatology and prevention of cutaneous carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 2006.

arw Pan Y, Anthony MS, Binns M, Clarkson TB. A comparison of oral micronized estradiol with soy phytoestrogen effects on tail skin temperatures of ovariectomized rats. Menopause 2001;8:171-4.

arw Pinnell SR

arw Cutaneous photodamage, oxidative stress, and topical antioxidant protection. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:1-19; quiz 20-2.

arw Ravindranath MH, Muthugounder S, Presser N, Viswanathan S.

arw Anticancer therapeutic potential of soy isoflavone, genistein. Adv Exp Med Biol 2004;546:121-65.

arw Sharma S, Sultana S. Modulatory effect of soy isoflavones on biochemical alterations mediated by TPA in mouse skin model. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:1669-75.

arw Skovgaard GR, Jensen AS, Sigler ML. Effect of a novel dietary supplement on skin aging in post-menopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006.

arw Varani J, Kelley EA, Perone P, Lateef H. Retinoid-induced epidermal hyperplasia in human skin organ culture: inhibition with soy extract and soy isoflavones. Exp Mol Pathol 2004;77:176-83.

arw Wei H, Saladi R, Lu Y, et al. Isoflavone genistein: photoprotection and clinical implications in dermatology. J Nutr 2003;133:3811S-3819S.

arw Widyarini S, Allanson M, Gallagher NL, et al. Isoflavonoid photoprotection in mouse and human skin is dependent on metallothionein. J Invest Dermatol 2006;126:198-204.