L Alanine
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L-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system. BCAAs are used as a source of energy for muscle cells. During prolonged exercise, BCAAs are released from skeletal muscles and their carbon backbones are used as fuel, while their nitrogen portion is used to form another amino acid, Alanine. Alanine is then converted to Glucose by the liver. This form of energy production is called the Alanine-Glucose cycle, and it plays a major role in maintaining the body's blood sugar balance.

L-Alanine is a white and odorless crystal powder with special sweet taste, which degree is about 70% of sugar. It easily dissolves in water (17% under 25), slightly dissolves in alcohol (0.2% in cold alcohol) and does not dissolve in ether. PH value in 5% water solution equals 5.5 to 7.0.

L-Alanine is a kind of important amino acid formed proteins. In medicine, it is a main material syntheslsed VB6, composition of nutriments, and important composition of 800-14 amino acid injection new medicine for disease of liver and brain. In food, it can be used as flavoring, synthetic sweet agent and improving the acidity of organic acid. Also it can be used as additive of salted food, drink contained alcohols, oil, yolk sauce, and improving the taste of food made with dregs of rice.

What is L-Alanine ?
Alanine, or L-Alanine, is an amino acid that makes it possible for the body to convert the simple sugar glucose into energy and dispose toxins from the liver. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein, and are key to building strong, healthy muscles—alanine has been shown to help protect cells from being damaged during intense aerobic activity, when the body cannibalizes muscle protein to help produce energy. It helps regulate and maintain healthy blood sugar levels to prevent chronic deficiencies that may cause muscle loss and poor glucose tolerance.

Alanine is a non-essential amino acid, as it is synthesized in the body in muscle tissue from branched chain amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine. This means since it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver, it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet and a healthy body is able to manufacture its own supply of this substance. Alanine can also be manufactured in the body from pyruvate. Alanine is found in a wide selection of dietary sources, but it is particularly concentrated in meats. Other excellent food sources of alanine include beans, poultry, nuts, dairy products, seafood, seeds, soy, whey, brewer's yeast, brown rice bran, caseinate, corn, dairy products, eggs, fish, gelatin, legumes, and whole grains. Other protein-rich plant foods like avocado can provide alanine as well.

Alanine is of paramount importance for preserving balanced levels of nitrogen and glucose in the body. Through a series of chemical actions called the alanine cycle, any excess amino acids (proteins) in cells or tissues are transferred to a receptor molecule called pyruvate, which is made by the breakdown of glucose. The pyruvate is then converted to alanine and transported to the liver. The liver takes nitrogen from alanine and changes some of it back into pyruvate, which can then be used to produce more glucose. Any leftover nitrogen is then converted into urea and excreted during urination. This cycle of glucose breaking down to pyruvate then alanine then pyruvate then glucose again, is critical for the body for it to get the energy it needs to support cellular life. In essence Alanine is used by the body to draw upon blood sugar as an energy source. It also ensures that a steady supply of pyruvate is bioavailable to promote the synthesis of glucose and amino acids in the body.

Where it is found
Good sources of alanine include:

Animal sources: meat, seafood, caseinate, dairy products, eggs, fish, gelatin, lactalbumin
Vegetarian sources: beans, nuts, seeds, soy, whey, brewer's yeast, brown rice, bran, corn, legumes, whole grains.

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Benefits / uses
Alanine is a vital source of energy for muscle tissue, the brain and central nervous system. It strengthens the immune system by producing antibodies, and helps in the metabolism of sugars and organic acids as well. Everyone, from top-level athletes to ordinary people, needs L-alanine. Since alanine is utilized by the body to derive an energy source from blood sugar, it may prove beneficial for bodybuilders and other athletes who are attempting to reduce body fat levels. It supports the metabolism of glucose, a simple carbohydrate that the body uses for energy. For the same reason, obese or overweight individuals may benefit by using a supplement containing alanine. During strenuous exercise L-Alanine is made available for muscle tissues into systemic circulation, where it gets converted to pyruvate in the liver, after which it evolves into glucose again for increased energy and endurance during grueling physical exertions and trainings. This makes L-Alanine an excellent addition to many pre-workout energy drinks and shakes because it serves as fuel for the muscles to increase power, strength and endurance for many performance athletes, especially strength athletes like power lifters and body builders.

Alanine also guards against the buildup of toxic substances that are released in the muscle cells when muscle protein is broken down to quickly meet energy needs, which is what happens with aerobic exercise. Individuals suffering from hypertension may benefit from supplemental alanine because it has demonstrated a cholesterol-reducing effect in clinical studies done on rats. When used together with arginine and glycine it has been shown that an overall decrease in arterial plaque.

Diabetics, or individuals suffering from insulin insensitivity, can get some much needed help from alanine supplementation because alanine has been shown to be integral in the regulation of insulin. Research and studies conducted have concluded and found that taking an oral dose of L-alanine for people with insulin-dependent diabetes effectively prevents nighttime hypoglycemia. In cases of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), alanine has been considered a reliable source for the production of glucose in order to regulate and maintain healthy and optimal blood sugar levels over longer periods. Alanine is also useful in improving prostate health. Because alanine is present in the prostate gland fluid, it has been theorized that this amino acid may help treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a condition in which the prostate becomes enlarged and causes pain during urination. Because of this, elderly males may benefit from its use.

The typically recommended dose for L-Alanine ranges between 3 and 10 grams taken 30 minutes before your strenuous physical workout. For bodybuilders and performance athletes one half level tablespoon will supply approximately 6031 milligrams, or just about 6 grams for the bulk density of this L-Alanine powder. Alanine is a nonessential amino acid, however, all amino acids can become essential, thus requiring dietary supplementation, if the body is for some reason unable to produce them in significant amounts. Those who eat low-protein diets or possess eating disorders, liver disease, diabetes, or genetic conditions that cause Urea Cycle Disorders (UCDs), are more susceptible to a deficiency, but this may be averted by taking alanine supplements. The body must always have alanine available for it to be able to process the B vitamins necessary for proper health, especially vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine).

Possible Side effects / Precautions / Possible Interactions:
No side effects have been reported, although as with any amino-acid, overdose is a possibility. Individuals suffering from diabetes, prostatitis or hypertension should consult a qualified medical practitioner prior to the use of supplemental L-alanine. Follow the directions as prescribed on the products label.

Research studies / References

arw Dawson, R.M.C., et al., Data for Biochemical Research, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1959.

arw Nomenclature and symbolism for amino acids and peptides (IUPAC-IUB Recommendations 1983)", Pure Appl. Chem. 56 (5): 595–624, 1984, doi:10.1351/pac198456050595.

Doolittle, R. F. (1989), "Redundancies in protein sequences", in Fasman, G. D., Prediction of Protein Structures and the Principles of Protein Conformation, New York: Plenum, pp. 599–623, ISBN 0-306-43131-9.

Kendall, E. C.; McKenzie, B. F. (1929), "dl-Alanine", Org. Synth. 9: 4, http://www.orgsyn.org/orgsyn/orgsyn/prepContent.asp?prep=cv1p0021; Coll. Vol. 1: 21.

arw a b Nelson, David L.; Cox, Michael M. (2005), Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.), New York: W. H. Freeman, pp. 684–85, ISBN 0-7167-4339-6.

Highfield, Roger (2008-04-21), "'Metabolic fingerprint' linked to high blood pressure", Daily Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/earth/2008/04/21/sciblood121.xml.

Zagórski, Z. P.; Sehested, K. (1998), "Transients and stable radical from the deamination of α-alanine", J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 232 (1-2): 139–41, doi:10.1007/BF02383729

Rennie, Michael J. (1999). Physical Exertion, Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism, and Protein Requirements. Protein and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. pp. 243-253

L. Brennan, A. Shine, C. Hewage, J.P.G. Malthouse, K.M. Brindle, N. McClenaghan, P.R. Flatt and P. Newsholme. (2002) "A NMR based demonstration of substantial oxidative L-alanine metabolism and L-alanine enhanced glucose metabolism in a clonal pancreatic b-cell line - Metabolism of L-alanine is important to the regulation of insulin secretion." Diabetes, 51, 1714