Your breasts produce colostrum in beginning of pregnancy and continuing through the early days of breastfeeding. This special milk is yellow to orange in color and thick and sticky. It is low in fat, and high in carbohydrates, protein, and antibodies to help keep your baby healthy. Colostrum is extremely easy to digest, and is therefore the perfect first food for your baby. It is low in volume (measurable in teaspoons rather than ounces), but high in concentrated nutrition for the newborn. Colostrum has a laxative effect on the baby, helping him pass his early stools, which aids in the excretion of excess bilirubin and helps prevent jaundice.

When your baby is breastfed early and often, your breasts will begin producing mature milk around the third or fourth day after birth. Your milk will then increase in volume and will generally begin to appear thinner and whiter (more opaque) in color. In those first few days it is extremely important to breastfeed your newborn at least 8-12 times each 24 hours, and more often is even better. This allows your baby to get all the benefits of the colostrum and also stimulates production of a plentiful supply of mature milk. Frequent breastfeeding also helps prevent engorgement.

Your colostrum provides not only perfect nutrition tailored to the needs of your newborn, but also large amounts of living cells which will defend your baby against many harmful agents. The concentration of immune factors is much higher in colostrum than in mature milk.

Colostrum actually works as a natural and 100% safe vaccine. It contains large quantities of an antibody called secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) which is a new substance to the newborn. Before your baby was born, he received the benefit of another antibody, called IgG, through your placenta. IgG worked through the baby's circulatory system, but IgA protects the baby in the places most likely to come under attack from germs, namely the mucous membranes in the throat, lungs, and intestines.

Colostrum has an especially important role to play in the baby's gastrointestinal tract. A newborn's intestines are very permeable. Colostrum seals the holes by "painting" the gastrointestinal tract with a barrier which mostly prevents foreign substances from penetrating and possibly sensitizing a baby to foods the mother has eaten.

Colostrum also contains high concentrations of leukocytes, protective white cells which can destroy disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
The colostrum gradually changes to mature milk during the first two weeks after birth. During this transition, the concentrations of the antibodies in your milk decrease, but your milk volume greatly increases. The disease-fighting properties of human milk do not disappear with the colostrum. In fact, as long as your baby receives your milk, he will receive immunological protection against many different viruses and bacteria.
What is Colostrum ?
Colostrum (also known as beestings or first milk) is a form of milk produced by the mammary glands in late pregnancy and the few days after giving birth. Human and bovine colostrums are thick, sticky and yellowish.

In humans, it has high concentrations of nutrients and antibodies, but it is small in quantity. Colostrum is high in carbohydrates, high in protein, high in antibodies, and low in fat (as human newborns may find fat difficult to digest).

Newborns have very small digestive systems, and colostrum delivers its nutrients in a very concentrated low-volume form.
It has a mild laxative effect, encouraging the passing of the baby's first stool, which is called meconium.

This clears excess bilirubin, a waste product of dead red blood cells which is produced in large quantities at birth due to blood volume reduction, from the infant's body and helps prevent jaundice. Colostrum contains large numbers of antibodies called "secretory immunoglobulin" (IgA) that help protect the mucous membranes in the throat, lungs, and intestines of the infant. Leukocytes are also present in large numbers; these begin protecting the infant from harmful viruses and bacteria.

Ingesting colostrum establishes beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract. Premature babies tend to fare better on human colostrum than commercial infant formulas.

Human milk contains special components, called growth modulators, that help the premature baby's digestive system adjust to oral feedings. Humans produce relatively small amounts of colostrum compared to a cow, which produces approximately 9 gallons of colostrum making it more readily available for commercial application. In addition, bovine colostrum contains a higher concentration of the active substances mentioned above.
Research indicates that premature babies fed formula tend to vomit more and continue tube feeding longer than those fed human colostrum and breast milk.

How it is made
Bovine colostrum for human consumption is collected from cows during the first 24 hours after birth. It is then sterilized, homogenized, pasteurized, and spray dried. The immunoglobulin content of colostrum is stable at high temperatures and is unaffected by these processes.Where it is found
Colostrum is found in the pre-milk fluid produced from human and cow's mammary glands during the first 24 to 48 hours after birth.

See product related video:
video icon

Colostrum by Doug Wyatt, Biological engineer and leading colostrum expert(10.17)

Product related PDF file
Colostrum and Immune system
Colostrum enhances stem cell proliferation

Benefits / uses
Inflammatory conditions are a major source of pain, including arthritis, colitis and other similar conditions. Colostrum has anti-inflammatory activity which can reduce inflammation, thus helping reduce the pain due to these conditions.

arw Colostrum has anti-inflammatory activity.
arw Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) receptors in colostrum bind TNF-α, a cytokine which controls the inflammatory cytokine cascade, effectively turning off inflammation at its source.
arw Colostrum also contains interleukin-1ra (IL-1ra), the IL-1 receptor protein, which also acts to inactivate the inflammatory activity of IL-1.
arw Colostrum has been shown to be beneficial to chronic inflammatory diseases, such as various forms of arthritis and Crohn’s disease, which have been linked to gut inflammation.
arw Lactoferrin has strong antioxidant characteristics which take place by two separate mechanisms: binding catalytic iron generated during cell destruction; and binding bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which causes a decrease in LPS bioactivity, such as increasing neutrophil O2 production.
arw Lactoferrin also inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines.
arw Proline rich peptides (PRP) also acts as an oxidative stress regulator.
Allergy Relief
Allergies in humans are the result of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) production by the body in response to a foreign protein to which the body has become sensitized. Colostrum can help desensitize the body to allergens by helping to suppress IgE expression.
arw Colostrum contains antibodies against allergens of clinical importance to humans
arw Colostrum contains IgE binding factors which suppress IgE expression (IgE is the immunoglobulin involved in allergic reactions) and act to prevent or inhibit allergic reactions.
Alzheimer’s Disease and Cognitive Disorders
As the number of senior citizens increases with improved health care and longer life expectancy, the effects of Alzheimer’s disease will continue to take a toll on our health system and our senior citizens. Colostrum contains components which have been shown to benefit those suffering from this debilitating condition.
arw Of 15 Alzheimer’s patients receiving PRP in a clinical trial, 8 showed clinical improvement and the rest stabilized, whereas of those receiving selenium or a placebo, none showed improvement.
arw Phosphatidylserine, has been shown to be of benefit when given to patients suffering from Alzheimer’s or senile dementia.
Antioxidants and Anti-aging
Are antioxidants the fountain of youth? That question remains debatable, but it is known that oxidative stress and high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of normal metabolism which build up in the body, can cause widespread damage and increase the aging process. Colostrum contains antioxidants and the precursors to glutathione (the most powerful antioxidant known) which help clean up these pollutants from the body and reverse the damage they do to the body.
arw Oxidation by-products of metabolism cause extensive damage to DNA, proteins and lipids, which ultimately results in aging, cancer and other degenerative diseases.
arw Chronic oxidative stress can accelerate cell senescence in human endothelial cells.
arw Colostrum is rich in antioxidants, including glutathione, the most powerful antioxidant known, and its precursors.
  Colostrum reduces ferricytochrome C and suppresses myeloperoxidase and lysozyme activity in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), activities which are important in the mediation of acute inflammatio.
  PRP turns down lipid peroxidation, reducing the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells.
  Lactoferrin acts as an antioxidant in the gut.
There are numerous forms of arthritis, from osteoarthritis to autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis which arise from many different causes. The common denominator between all the different forms of arthritis, however, is an inflammation of the joints which causes extreme pain and deformation of the joint structure. Colostrum is a powerful anti-inflammatory compound which can significantly benefit arthritis sufferers, and it can help heal inflammation of the gut which has been linked to some forms of arthritis.
arw Some forms of arthritis and arthritic conditions have been linked to increased intestinal permeability, which colostrum helps heal.
arw Colostrum or its components have been used to treat forms of arthritis which manifest an inflamed gut.
Colostrum has been shown to help asthma sufferers as it tones down the allergic response which brings on the asthma attacks.
arw Lactoferrin inhibits tryptase, an enzyme secreted by mast cells and implicated as a potential causative agent of asthma, and when given to allergic sheep which serve as an animal model of asthma, abolished late-phase bronchoconstriction.
Athletic Performance
Colostrum is well-known in the athletic community as a means to increase lean body mass without the dangerous side effects found in steroids. It also helps keep the athlete healthy by accelerating the healing of athletic injuries and boosting the immune system, which becomes depressed after extreme exercise.
arw Colostrum supplementation produces a significant increase in lean body mass compared to whey.
arw Colostrum supplementation increases anaerobic power, performance time, and sprint performance when compared to whey.
arw Athletes have increased susceptibility to infectious diseases following strenuous exercise, and colostrum boosts immunity, helps heal leaky gut syndrome and decreases recovery time in athletes.
arw Marathon runners, who experience a significantly higher incidence or upper respiratory tract infections (URI) in the weeks leading up to and following a marathon, had a much lower rate of URI when receiving colostrum supplementation as compared to placebo.
arw Marathon runners, who experience a significantly higher incidence or upper respiratory tract infections (URI) in the weeks leading up to and following a marathon, had a much lower rate of URI when receiving colostrum supplementation as compared to placebo.
arw When given colostrum, serum IGF-1 levels increase even though the ingested IGF-1 in colostrum is not absorbed and supplementation with colostrum does not produce positive results for IGF-1 in drug tests.
arw IGF-1 when taken in its natural form is not banned by the International Olympic Committee, whereas synthetic forms are. Colostrum is a natural source of IGF-1.
Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmune diseases are the result of an overactive immune system which begins to produce antibodies to the body’s own proteins. PRP, a unique substance found only in colostrum, has the ability to tone down the overactive immune system to normal levels. Colostrum also contains components which can alleviate the symptoms found in various autoimmune disorders, particularly those with inflammation of some body organ.
arw Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease respond to the anti-inflammatory components of colostrum.
arw PRP has therapeutic value in treating autoimmune diseases through its immunomodulatory effects and may be able to stimulate the formation of specific suppressor cells which inhibit the development of these diseases.
arw A clinical study showed that patients with with multiple sclerosis who received anti-measles bovine colostrum showed significant improvement in their condition versus those who received non-anti-measles colostrum.
Animal studies have been suggestive that lactoferrin, one of the principal proteins found in colostrum, may help prevent or shrink cancers. Colostrum also contains milk fats which have been shown to be anticarcinogenic.
Lactoferrin prevents colon, bladder, tongue, esophagus and lung cancers and lung metastasis in animal models. The underlying mechanisms are under study but appear to be related to lactoferrin’s ability to boost immune system function.
arw Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and other fats found in colostrum and milk have also been shown to anticarcinogenic properties.
Traditionally, what detoxification means to most people is taking a powerful herbal concoction which causes the body to dump fluids, thus flushing the system of impurities and toxins. From the point of view of colostrum, however, this is a limited and potentially dangerous concept of detoxification that puts unneeded stress on the body and can do more harm than good. Colostrum detoxifies the body beginning in the gastrointestinal tract in a much healthier and efficacious manner. Colostrum inhibits or destroys harmful pathogens which can colonize the gut and cause major health problems, such as Helicobacter pylori, the main cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers, Candida albicans, a fungus which can overgrow the intestines, forcing out beneficial bacteria, and many others, while promoting the growth of beneficial bacterial colonies. Colostrum also acts to heal the damage to the intestinal lining caused by the pathogens and toxins which can accumulate there. This prevents pathogens and toxins from entering the body and restores normal gut functioning. Colostrum also helps protect and heal both the liver and the pancreas from the effects of toxins in the body by helping to remove dangerous toxins and by stimulating these organs to replace damaged tissue.
arw Colostrum kills H. pylori, a major cause of gastritis and ulcers.
arw Bovine colostrum eradicates many dangerous pathogens from the bowel and heals intestinal erosions and ulcerations.
arw Colostrum protects the gut from infection as IgA within the colostrum protects mucosal lining.
arw Lactoferrin inhibits the growth of Candida albicans and harmful bacteria.
arw Supplementation with colostrum can protect the liver from the toxic effects of hepatitis, cirrhosis, toxic liver cell damage, fibrosis of the liver, inflammation of the liver, fatty liver, and other liver diseases by removing excess toxic protein metabolites, such as ammonia, formed from the breakdown of liver cells, enabling the liver to improve its ability to detoxify these substances on its own. In addition, colostrum supplementation helps prevent portal hypertension, which can have drastic neurological effects.
arw IGF-1 and IGF-II, both found in colostrum, can be given orally to prevent and treat pancreatic disorders as well as to promote pancreatic growth in cases of pancreatic insufficiency, cystic fibrosis or partial removal of the pancreas.
IGF-1, a growth factor which closely resembles insulin, has been shown to help prevent diabetes in those susceptible to developing it. IGF-1 is present in colostrum in large quantities.
arw Autoimmune diabetes (type I diabetes) has been linked to leaky gut and an overactive gut immune system.
arw IGF-1 stimulates glucose transport in skeletal muscle but not in obesity or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).
  IGF-1 delays the clinical onset of diabetes, reduces the occurrence of beta cell destruction, and reduces the likelihood of the occurrence of clinical diabetes when administered to those at risk of developing type I diabetes. Combining the IGF-1 with IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has been found to be even more effective.
  Diabetic autonomic neuropathy, a condition found in diabetics in which nerve cells of the autonomic nervous system die, may be ameliorated by IGF-1, which has a neuroprotective effect that prevents damage to neurons from the high glucose levels in the blood that are associated with poorly controlled diabetes.
Heart Health
An increasingly large body of evidence shows that dairy products in general, and colostrum in particular, are excellent heart health foods, particularly for those with high blood pressure.
arw Insulin and IGF-I (both found in colostrum) relax coronary arteries, which decreases the blood pressure in the coronary arteries.
arw Proteins and peptides as well as other substances found in colostrum and milk help lower blood pressure, especially when consumed with a low-fat, high fruit and vegetable diet.
Pain Management
Chronic, severe pain which cannot be related to any specific injury or disease process in the body is becoming increasingly common, and the management of such pain has proven elusive. Good results, however, have been gained by using immunoglobulin concentrated from bovine colostrum and given intravenously, though the exact mechanism of why this treatment works is as yet unknown.
arw Immunoglobulins pooled from bovine colostrum have been used intravenously for the treatment of chronic pain without anatomical correlate.
Skin Health and Wound Healing
Colostrum is a natural for good skin health. It contains all that is needed to maintain healthy skin and reduce wrinkles. It helps maintain skin health both from the inside, by healing leaky gut syndrome and through its antioxidant effect, and externally by healing skin inflammation and stimulating cell growth.
arw Colostrum helps heal leaky gut syndrome, an abnormal condition which allows unwanted pathogens and toxins into the body, which then may cause skin eruptions as the body attempts to remove them.
arw Lactoferrin’s role as an antioxidant helps clean up free radicals which can cause skin aging changes.
arw Lactoferrin applied topically can inhibit local inflammatory responses in the skin by regulating the expression of TNF-α.
arw Growth factors found in colostrum, such as epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), help maintain healthy skin by replacing damaged tissue and can accelerate wound healing, while a lack of IGF-1 retards wound healing.
arw Skin becomes thin with aging due to a reduction in growth factors with age; IGF-1 supplementation can help restore skin thickness.
arw Ceramide, the predominant lipid in the skin and a metabolite of sphingomyelin, one of the phospholipids found in colostrum and BIO-lipid, is important for both water retention and permeability barrier function; decreased levels of ceramide are associated with dermatitis and dry skin conditions.
arw Sphingosines, which are also metabolites of sphingomyelin, also are important in maintaining the barrier function of the skin against pathogens, including bacteria and fungi, and can even be used as topical antiseptics.

Best Form For Human Consumption
Bovine Colostrums has been used for years as a food supplement, its use and safety is well documented. It is a whole and natural food that can be consumed in ANY quantity. There are absolutely no toxicity levels. Further the manufacture and use of dairy products, and their associated safety and nutritional benefits is also well known. Through quality control management of the entire manufacturing process, from collection of the Colostrum, through to packaging and storage, ensures the Colostrum is delivered in perfect condition, certified to be fit for human consumption.

The recommended dose for adults is 1000mg everyday.
Possible Side effects / Precautions / Possible Interactions:
No significant bovine colostrum side effects have yet been reported in the medical literature. Since it is rich in calories, one would guess that drinking excess amounts could add on some pounds. But most people are not likely to drink more than an ounce or two a day.

Research studies / References
arw Gottstein, Michael. Colostrum is vital ingredient to keep newborn lambs alive. Irish Independent. 3 March 2009.
arw Peter Bird, Northamptonshire ACRE 'Village Voices' oral history recordings, Northamptonshire ACRE and Northamptonshire County Archives
arw L. Saint, Margret Smith, P. E. Hartmann (1984). "The yield and nutrient content of colostrum and milk of women from giving birth to 1 month post-partum". British Journal of Nutrition 52: 91.
arw Groves, ML (1960). "The isolation of a red protein from milk". Journal of the American Chemical Society 82: 3345–3360. doi:10.1021/ja01498a029.
arw Paulík S, Slanina L, Polácek M (January 1985). "[Lysozyme in the colostrum and blood of calves and dairy cows]" (in Slovak). Vet Med (Praha) 30 (1): 21–8. PMID 3918380.
arw Reiter B (1978). "The lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide antibacterium system". Ciba Found. Symp. (65): 285–94. PMID 225143.
arw Brock, JH, et al. (1975). "Bactericidal and hemolytic activity of complement in bovine colostrum and serum: effect of proteolytic enzymes and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA)". Annales d’Immunologie 126C (4): 439–451.
arw Zabłocka A, Janusz M, Rybka K, Wirkus-Romanowska I, Kupryszewski G, Lisowski J (2001). "Cytokine-inducing activity of a proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP) from ovine colostrum and its active nonapeptide fragment analogs". Eur. Cytokine Netw. 12 (3): 462–7. PMID 11566627.
arw a b Hagiwara K, Kataoka S, Yamanaka H, Kirisawa R, Iwai H (October 2000). "Detection of cytokines in bovine colostrum". Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 76 (3-4): 183–90. doi:10.1016/S0165-2427(00)00213-0. PMID 11044552.
arw Rudloff HE, Schmalstieg FC, Mushtaha AA, Palkowetz KH, Liu SK, Goldman AS (January 1992). "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human milk". Pediatr. Res. 31 (1): 29–33. PMID 1375729.
arw Maheshwari A, Christensen RD, Calhoun DA (November 2003). "ELR+ CXC chemokines in human milk". Cytokine 24 (3): 91–102. doi:10.1016/j.cyto.2003.07.002. PMID 14581003.
arw Xu RJ (1996). "Development of the newborn GI tract and its relation to colostrum/milk intake: a review". Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 8 (1): 35–48. doi:10.1071/RD9960035. PMID 8713721.
arw O'Dell SD, Day IN (July 1998). "Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 30 (7): 767–71. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(98)00048-X. PMID 9722981.
arw Okada M, Ohmura E, Kamiya Y, et al. (1991). "Transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha in human milk". Life Sci. 48 (12): 1151–6. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(91)90452-H. PMID 2002746.
arw Saito S, Yoshida M, Ichijo M, Ishizaka S, Tsujii T (October 1993). "Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in human milk". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 94 (1): 220–4. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.1993.tb06004.x. PMC 1534356. PMID 8403511.
arw Tokuyama Y, Tokuyama H (February 1993). "Purification and identification of TGF-beta 2-related growth factor from bovine colostrum". J. Dairy Res. 60 (1): 99–109. doi:10.1017/S0022029900027382. PMID 8436667.
arw Hironaka, T, et al. Identification and partial purification of a basic fibroblast growth factor-like growth factor derived from bovine colostrum. Journal of Dairy Science 80(3):488-495 (1997)
arw Xiao X, Xiong A, Chen X, Mao X, Zhou X (March 2002). "Epidermal growth factor concentrations in human milk, cow's milk and cow's milk-based infant formulas". Chin. Med. J. 115 (3): 451–4. PMID 11940387.
arw a b Playford RJ, Macdonald CE, Johnson WS (July 2000). "Colostrum and milk-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72 (1): 5–14. PMID 10871554.
arw Vuorela P, Andersson S, Carpén O, Ylikorkala O, Halmesmäki E (November 2000). "Unbound vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in breast, human milk, and newborn intestine". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72 (5): 1196–201. PMID 11063449.
arw Flidel-Rimon O, Roth P (November 1997). "Effects of milk-borne colony stimulating factor-1 on circulating growth factor levels in the newborn infant". J. Pediatr. 131 (5): 748–50. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(97)70105-7. PMID 9403658.
arw Pakkanen R, Aalto J. (1997). "Growth Factors and Antimicrobial Factors of Bovine Colostrum". International Dairy Journal 7: 285–297. doi:10.1016/S0958-6946(97)00022-8.
arw Venner M, Markus RG, Strutzberg-Minder K, Nogai K, Beyerbach M, Klug E (2008). "[Evaluation of immunoglobulin G concentration in colostrum of mares by ELISA, refractometry and colostrometry]" (in German). Berliner Und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift 121 (1-2): 66–72. PMID 18277781.
arw Uruakpa, F (2002). "Colostrum and its benefits: a review". Nutrition Research 22: 755. doi:10.1016/S0271-5317(02)00373-1.
arw Playford, RJ.; Floyd, DN.; Macdonald, CE.; Calnan, DP.; Adenekan, RO.; Johnson, W.; Goodlad, RA.; Marchbank, T. (May 1999). "Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage.". Gut 44 (5): 653–8. doi:10.1136/gut.44.5.653. PMC 1727496. PMID 10205201.
arw Carver, JD.; Barness, LA. (Jun 1996). "Trophic factors for the gastrointestinal tract.". Clin Perinatol 23 (2): 265–85. PMID 8780905.
arw a b McConnell MA, et al. A Comparison of IgG and IgG1 Activity in an Early Milk Concentrate from Non-Immunized Cows and a Milk from Hyperimmunized Animals. Food Research International 34:255-261 (2001)
arw SABIN, AB. (Nov 1950). "Antipoliomyelitic substance in milk of human beings and certain cows.". AMA Am J Dis Child 80 (5): 866–7. PMID 14777169.
arw Pallasch, TJ. (Oct 2003). "Antibiotic prophylaxis: problems in paradise.". Dent Clin North Am 47 (4): 665–79. doi:10.1016/S0011-8532(03)00037-5. PMID 14664458.
arw a b Hofman, Z.; Smeets, R.; Verlaan, G.; Lugt, R.; Verstappen, PA. (Dec 2002). "The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in elite field hockey players.". Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 12 (4): 461–9. PMID 12500989.
arw Buckley, JD.; Abbott, MJ.; Brinkworth, GD.; Whyte, PB. (Jun 2002). "Bovine colostrum supplementation during endurance running training improves recovery, but not performance.". J Sci Med Sport 5 (2): 65–79. doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(02)80028-7. PMID 12188088.
arw Ray Playford et al. (2011). The nutriceutical, bovine colostrum, truncates the increase in gut permeability caused by heavy exercise in athletes. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, (March 2011).
arw Berk, LS.; Nieman, DC.; Youngberg, WS.; Arabatzis, K.; Simpson-Westerberg, M.; Lee, JW.; Tan, SA.; Eby, WC. (Apr 1990). "The effect of long endurance running on natural killer cells in marathoners.". Med Sci Sports Exerc 22 (2): 207–12. PMID 2355818.
arw Antonio, J.; Sanders, MS.; Van Gammeren, D. (Mar 2001). "The effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in active men and women.". Nutrition 17 (3): 243–7. doi:10.1016/S0899-9007(00)00552-9. PMID 11312068.
arw Arai, Y.; Hirose, N.; Yamamura, K.; Shimizu, K.; Takayama, M.; Ebihara, Y.; Osono, Y. (Feb 2001). "Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 in centenarians: implications of IGF-1 as a rapid turnover protein.". J Gerontol a Biol Sci Med Sci 56 (2): M79–82. PMID 11213280.
arw Caregaro, L.; Favaro, A.; Santonastaso, P.; Alberino, F.; Di Pascoli, L.; Nardi, M.; Favaro, S.; Gatta, A. (Jun 2001). "Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a nutritional marker in patients with eating disorders.". Clin Nutr 20 (3): 251–7. doi:10.1054/clnu.2001.0397. PMID 11407872.
arw Rasmussen, MH.; Frystyk, J.; Andersen, T.; Breum, L.; Christiansen, JS.; Hilsted, J. (Mar 1994). "The impact of obesity, fat distribution, and energy restriction on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3, insulin, and growth hormone.". Metabolism 43 (3): 315–9. doi:10.1016/0026-0495(94)90099-X. PMID 7511202.
arw Mero, A.; Kähkönen, J.; Nykänen, T.; Parviainen, T.; Jokinen, I.; Takala, T.; Nikula, T.; Rasi, S. et al. (Aug 2002). "IGF-I, IgA, and IgG responses to bovine colostrum supplementation during training.". J Appl Physiol 93 (2): 732–9. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00002.2002 (inactive 2009-11-22). PMID 12133885.
arw Wakabayashi, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Teraguchi, S.; Takase, M.; Hayasawa, H. (May 1999). "Inhibition of iron/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation by an N-terminal peptide of bovine lactoferrin and its acylated derivatives." (PDF). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 63 (5): 955–7. doi:10.1271/bbb.63.955. PMID 10380640.
arw Gutteridge, JM.; Smith, A. (Dec 1988). "Antioxidant protection by haemopexin of haem-stimulated lipid peroxidation.". Biochem J 256 (3): 861–5. PMC 1135495. PMID 3223958.
arw [ "Randomized control trials using a tablet formulation of hyperimmune bovine colostrum to prevent diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in volunteers"]. Informa Healthcare, Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 2011; Early Online, 1–7. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
arw Lawrence HS (August 1949). "The cellular transfer of cutaneous hypersensitivity to tuberculin in man". Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 71 (4): 516–22. PMID 18139800.
arw Janusz M, Lisowski J, Franĕk F (December 1974). "Isolation and characterization of a proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum". FEBS Lett. 49 (2): 276–9. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(74)80529-6. PMID 4442608.
arw Zimecki M (2008). "A proline-rich polypeptide from ovine colostrum: colostrinin with immunomodulatory activity". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 606: 241–50. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-74087-4_9. PMID 18183932.
arw Levin AS, Spitler LE, Fudenberg HH (1975). "Transfer factor I: methods of therapy". Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser. 11 (1): 445–8. PMID 1080060.
arw Bacsi Attila; Aguilera-Aguirre Leopoldo; German Peter; Kruzel Marian L; Boldogh Istvan; Colostrinin decreases spontaneous and induced mutation frequencies at the hprt locus in Chinese hamster V79 cells, Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology 2006; 5(4):249-59.
arw Khan A (February 1978). "Transfer factor in viral diseases". Lancet 1 (8059): 328–9. PMID 75363.
arw Estrada-Parra S, Chávez-Sánchez R, Ondarza-Aguilera R, et al. (1995). "Immunotherapy with transfer factor of recurrent herpes simplex type I". Arch. Med. Res. 26 Spec No: S87–92. PMID 8845664.
arw Raise E, Guerra L, Viza D, et al. (1996). "Preliminary results in HIV-1-infected patients treated with transfer factor (TF) and zidovudine (ZDV)". Biotherapy 9 (1-3): 49–54. doi:10.1007/BF02628656. PMID 8993757.
arw Wilson GB, Metcalf JF, Fudenberg HH (May 1982). "Treatment of Mycobacterium fortuitum pulmonary infection with "transfer factor" (TF): new methodology for evaluating TF potency and predicting clinical response". Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 23 (2): 478–91. doi:10.1016/0090-1229(82)90132-5. PMID 7049471.
arw Fabre RA, Pérez TM, Aguilar LD, et al. (May 2004). "Transfer factors as immunotherapy and supplement of chemotherapy in experimental pulmonary tuberculosis". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 136 (2): 215–23. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2004.02454.x. PMC 1809022. PMID 15086383.
arw Louie E, Borkowsky W, Klesius PH, et al. (September 1987). "Treatment of cryptosporidiosis with oral bovine transfer factor". Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 44 (3): 329–34. doi:10.1016/0090-1229(87)90077-8. PMID 3621678.
arw Feigin RD, Shackelford PG, Eisen S, Spitler LE, Pickering LK, Anderson DC (January 1974). "Treatment of mucocutaneous candidasis with transfer factor". Pediatrics 53 (1): 63–70. PMID 4588132.
arw Phillips J, Boiucheix C, Pizza G, Sartorio C, Viza D (March 1978). "Effect of in vitro produced transfer factor on Hodgkin patients". Br. J. Haematol. 38 (3): 430–1. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1978.tb01066.x. PMID 76476.
arw Levin AS, Byers VS, Fudenberg HH, et al. (March 1975). "Osteogenic sarcoma. Immunologic parameters before and during immunotherapy with tumor-specific transfer factor". J. Clin. Invest. 55 (3): 487–99. doi:10.1172/JCI107955. PMC 301776. PMID 1078826.
arw Pizza G, De Vinci C, Cuzzocrea D, et al. (1996). "A preliminary report on the use of transfer factor for treating stage D3 hormone-unresponsive metastatic prostate cancer". Biotherapy 9 (1-3): 123–32. doi:10.1007/BF02628669. PMID 8993770.
arw Boldogh I, Aguilera-Aguirre L, Bacsi A, Choudhury BK, Saavedra-Molina A, Kruzel M (2008). "Colostrinin decreases hypersensitivity and allergic responses to common allergens". Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 146 (4): 298–306. doi:10.1159/000121464. PMID 18367843.
arw Keech A (2008). "Peptide Immunotherapy: The Use of Bovine Colostrum Proline-Rich Polypeptides in Cytokine Modulation for the Alternative Relief of Allergic Symptoms". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 119 (1): S260–S260. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.12.388.
arw Khan A, Sellars W, Grater W, et al. (April 1978). "The usefulness of transfer factor in asthma associated with frequent infections". Ann Allergy 40 (4): 229–32. PMID 345886.
arw Lawrence HS (June 1965). "Transfer factor and autoimmune disease". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 124 (1): 56–60. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1965.tb18942.x. PMID 4379060.
arw Bilikiewicz A, Gaus W (February 2004). "Colostrinin (a naturally occurring, proline-rich, polypeptide mixture) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease". J. Alzheimers Dis. 6 (1): 17–26. PMID 15004324.
arw Robles A (2009). "Pharmacological Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: Is it Progressing Adequately?". Open Neurol J 3: 27–44. doi:10.2174/1874205X00903010027. PMC 2684708. PMID 19461897.
arw A. Bilikiewicz; W. Gaus; Colostrinin (a naturally occurring proline-rich polypeptide mixture) in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 6 (2004) 17–26 17 IOS Press.
arw Simko M, Mokrán V, Nyulassy S (April 1997). "[Immunomodulatory therapy of epilepsy with transfer factor]" (in Slovak). Bratisl Lek Listy 98 (4): 234–7. PMID 9264833.